- Batzer, H.O.
U.S. Forest Service
One-half century ago, the use of management techniques were proposed as the ultimate solution for handling the spruce budworm problem in aging spruce-fir forests. The recommended management control were based upon retrospective analyses of spruce budworm outbreaks. Observers had deduced that the most vulnerable stands were the ones most damaged and, therefore, that characteristics of these stands helped identify which stand factors were important. They concluded that managers could minimize the impact of outbreaks by preventing them or by reducing their frequency or severity.