- MacLean, David A.
Canadian Forestry Service
Effects of spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.)) outbreaks on the productivity and stability of forests in eastern Canada are reviewed and discussed. Defoliation results in reduced growth of trees, widespread tree mortality, and loss of wood production, and thereby causes major forest management problems. At present, the only feasible method for limiting damage and losses from budworm outbreaks over large areas is to apply chemical or biological insecticides periodically to kill larvae and protect the forest from defoliation and tree mortality. Although budworm outbreaks definitely disrupt the wood-producing capacity of forests (or the short-term "stability of forests for human usage"), in terms of overall ecological stability, outbreaks apparently act as a cycling mechanism that allows advance fir-spruce regeneration to succeed the fir-spruce overstory.