- Fowler, Gary W.
School of Natural Resources, University of Michigan
- Simmons, Gary A.
This handbook is intended for use by pest management specialists, foresters, and land managers. It is based on a research project supported by the Canada/United States Spruce Budworms Program (43-3604-3-378). Many of the results used to develop the procedures presented here can be found in Fowler and Simmons (1980, 1982, 1984), Simmons and Fowler (1982, 1984), and Fowler and Witter (1982). Although the handbook was developed specifically for egg-mass surveys, the procedures outlined can be used or modified for foliage sampling for overwintering larvae and/or pupal sampling, or adult sampling with light or pheromone traps.